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City and County of Zamość
Site number:
Type of site: Cultural
Date: 16th century
Date of Inscription: 1992
Location: Europe, Poland, Lublin Voivodship (formerly Zamość Voivodship)
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Description: Chancellor Jan Zamoysky founded Zamosc in the 16th century on the trade route that connects Europe’s north and west with the Black Sea. The Padua native architect Bernando Morando Modelled Zamosc on Italian theories of the 'ideal city'; it is an ideal illustration of a late-16th-century Renaissance town. It currently stands on its retained original layout boasting its survived fortifications as well as a vast amount of buildings that merge Italian and central European architectural traditions. --WHMNet paraphrase from the description at WHC Site, where additional information is available.
  Zamość is a town in southeastern Poland, situated in the Lublin Voivodship (since 1999). About 20 kilometres from the town is the Roztocze National Park. The historical city centre was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List (in 1992). Zamość was founded in the year 1580 by the Chancellor and Hetman (head of the army of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) Jan Zamoyski, on the trade route linking western and northern Europe with the Black Sea. Modelled on Italian trading cities, and built during the Baroque period by the architect Bernardo Morando, a native of Padua, Zamość remains a perfect example of a Renaissance town of the late 16th century, which retains its original layout and fortifications (Zamość Fortress), and a large number of buildings blending Italian and central European architectural traditions. The Old City quarter of Zamość has been placed on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. In 1942, Zamość County, due to its fertile black soil, was chosen for further German colonisation in the General Government as part of Generalplan Ost. The city itself was to be renamed "Himmlerstadt" (Himmler City) and the German occupiers had planned the relocation of at least 60,000 ethnic Germans in the area before the end of 1943. Before that, a "test trial" expulsion was performed in November 1941, and the whole operation ended in a pacification operation, combined with expulsions in June/July 1943 which was code named Wehrwolf Action I and II. Around 110,000 people from 297 villages were expelled. Around 30,000 victims were children who, if racially "clean" (ie. had physical characteristics deemed "Germanic") were planned for germanisation in German families in the Third Reich. Most of the people expelled were sent as slave labour in Germany or to concentration camps. After World War II, Zamość started a period of development. In the 1970s and 1980s the population grew rapidly (from 39,100 in 1975 to 68,800 in 2003), as the city started to gain significant profits from the old trade routes linking Germany with Ukraine and the ports on the Black Sea. --Wikipedia. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.
Reference: 1. UNESCO World Heritage Center, Site Page.
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